After completing this lesson, you will be able to-
- What is relative pronouns?
- list the uses of relative pronouns.
- Identify relative pronouns in given sentences.
What is relative pronoun?
A relative pronoun is used to refer back to a noun or pronoun. This noun or pronoun is mentioned before the relative pronoun. It is also called the antecedent.
For example: Raj is the man who is contented.
The relative pronoun ‘who‘ is used to refer to the antecedent man. It is called a relative pronoun because it relates to the noun going before it.
‘Who’, ‘whom’, ‘whose’, ‘which’, ‘what’, ‘that’, ‘as’ are Relative pronouns. They have the same form as interrogative pronouns.
Relative pronouns are used to join sentences forming what we call relative pronouns. As they join sentences they are pronouns as well as conjunctions.
The woman is giving the opening speech. The woman is quite famous.
Both sentences give us some information about the woman. The sentences be joined using the relative pronoun who. It acts as a conjunction and relates to the noun woman.
Relative pronouns also introduced noun Clauses and relative clauses. The relative pronouns ‘who’ and ‘whom’ are used for persons only.
How to Use Relative Pronouns?-
Who- ‘Who’ is used when the noun referred to is the subject of the sentence.
Whom- ‘Whom’ is used when the noun referred to is the object of the sentence.
- She is the girl who loves to cook.
The relative pronoun ‘who’ refers to the subject boy.
- The girl whom I was talking about works at the restaurant.
The relative pronoun ‘whom’ refers to the object boy.
Whose- ‘Whose’ is used for persons and things. It indicates possession.
- The bike whose color is black belongs to Jim.
The relative pronoun ‘whose’ is used for or a thing namely the bike. It indicates the color red is a quality associated with the bike.
- The girl whose ruler broke is crying.
The relative pronoun ‘whose’ is used for a person. The ruler belongs to the girl.
Which – The relative pronoun ‘which’ is used for animals and things.
- The pizza, which you ate was baked by me.
The relative pronoun ‘Which’ refers to a thing pizza, which refers to a thing pizza.
- Tommy is the name of the dog, which is sleeping on the bed.
The relative pronoun which refers to an animal the dog
That- ‘That’ is used after adjective in the superlative degree and after the interrogative of pronouns, who, which, and what.
- It is the best wedding party that I have ever attended.
‘That’ is used after the superlative objective best.
- Who is that you were talking to?
‘That’ is used after the interrogative of pronoun who.
That is used only in defining clauses i.e. clauses that restrict, limit or define the antecedent. These are clauses that provide essential information about the noun being referred to.
- He is the boy that won the race.
‘That’ ‘which’ can be replaced by the relative pronoun ‘what’.
- Please pick up what you have dropped.
‘What’ replaces ‘that’ ‘which’ in this sentence.
As- The word as can be used as a relative pronoun if it is preceded by such, as or the same.
For example-Those mangoes are not such as I bought yesterday.
The relative pronoun as follows the word such.
Relative pronoun used in a sentence-
The position of the relative pronoun in a sentence is of great importance. The relative pronoun must always be placed as close as possible to the antecedent.
- The man who is working late is the manager.
It is clear that the relative pronoun ‘who’ refers to the subject man.
- The cat saw the dog which jumped on the fence.
The relative pronoun ‘which’ is placed after the dog it means that the dog has jumped on the fence.
- The cat which saw the dog jumped on the fence.
The relative pronoun, ‘which’ has been placed close to the antecedent the cat.
Let us revise relative pronouns-
- Relative pronouns are used to refer back to a noun or a pronoun. This noun or pronoun is mentioned before the relative pronoun. It is also called the antecedent.
- Who, whom, whose, which, what, that, as are relative pronouns.
- Relative pronouns have the same form as interrogative of pronouns.
- As relative pronouns join sentences, they are pronouns as well as conjunctions.
- Relative pronouns also introduce noun Clauses and relative clauses.
- Usage of relative pronounce-
- ‘Who’ and ‘whom’ are used for persons only.
- ‘Whose’ is used for persons and things.
- ‘Which’ is used for things.
- ‘That’ is used after ejectives in the superlative degree, and after the intricate of pronounced ‘who’, ‘which’ and ‘what’.
- ‘That’ is used only in defining Clauses.
- ‘As’ can be used as a relative pronoun if it is preceded by ‘such’, ‘as’ and ‘the same’.
- The relative pronoun must always appear as close as possible to the antecedent.